Chapter 1 introduction11 background of the

Historical research, however, has disagreed. At this point, the reported number of humans infected remains low in comparison to the number of birds infected— confirmed cases in 9 countries over the past 4 years.

Such measures can be deployed at the community level, for example, by closing schools and other public places. Evidence for airborne transmission of influenza is limited, but studies in animals and humans have raised significant concerns that airborne transmission is a potentially important mode of transmission for some infectious agents Alford et al.

Aerosol transmission involves the dissemination of either airborne droplet nuclei or minute infectious particles. Deformation analysis is one of the main research fields in geodesy and geomatic. Droplets of varying sizes may be propelled short distances usually less Chapter 1 introduction11 background of the 3 feet from an infected individual to a susceptible host by coughing, sneezing, or talking DHHS, b.

In addition, little is published about the infectious dose of this virus.

As the reported cases stem from those seeking medical care, the death rate may be artificially high. However, via genetic mutation or exchange of genetic material with a human influenza virus, it may develop this capability. Deformation measurements and analysis require the use of very accurate surveying equipment and analysis methods Setan and Singh, Hundreds of millions of wild and domesticated fowl have died from this virus, either through illness or culling.

Deformation measurements and analysis require the use of very accurate surveying equipment and analysis methods. The steps include; data input, processing stage and output.

Such a change may lead to devastating consequences. Implementation stage This stage involves what is done in order to obtain the final output for deformation detection.

Moreover, the duration of an influenza pandemic could be weeks or months, with several epidemic waves that could deplete the energy and resources of healthcare facilities and providers. In a reference network, some of the points or stations are assumed to be located outside of the deformable body or object, thus serving as reference points for the determination of the absolute displacements of the object points.

Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic: To avoid a wrong interpretation of displacements, an appropriate deformation monitoring network must be established and the data obtained from deformation monitoring network must be carefully evaluated. Introduce the research topic, the background of the study, problem statement, research objective, scope and methodology.

The relative importance of each mode of transmission is unknown.

Thus, hand hygiene, that is, frequent hand washing, using soap and water or alcohol-based hand gels, is an essential feature of limiting influenza transmission through contact WHO Writing Group, The output of the evaluation of the measurements is mainly point positions.

During the 20th century, there were three pandemics that arose as a result of Page 13 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Measurements can be collected using several techniques such as Total station, GPS, Laser scanner, Photogrammetry or combined techniques.

This project is only limited to 2D network adjustment and 2D deformation detection for distance, angle and azimuth observations. The detection of deformation uses two-epoch analysis, an absolute monitoring network and a static model to compare the coordinate between the epochs Setan, Some studies suggest that influenza is spread mainly through this mode of transmission, with the smaller particles being the most efficient in infecting individuals Salgado et al.

Page 14 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Deformation analysis process comprises of measurement and analysis phases.

In addition, these measures can be implemented at the individual level by isolating patients, limiting contacts with infected persons, and otherwise minimizing the likelihood of exposure to the virus. In this study 2D absolute geodetic deformation is considered. So in this work MATLAB programming is developed for network adjustment and distance, angle and azimuth observation respectively deformation detection where Adjustment program can create required data for deformation detection.

Contact transmission of influenza through either direct skin-to-skin contact or indirect contact contact with contaminated objects, such as hands or countertops has been suggested as a factor contributing to transmission in some studies Bean et al. The potential duration and severity are also impossible to predict.

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Of those cases there have been reported deaths WHO, Barry reports, for example, that what is currently referred to as Spanish influenza may have actually resulted as a spread from swine to humans in Kansas, spreading to Europe as a result of U.1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Deformation measurements are one of the most important activities of engineering surveying.

Deformation analysis is one of the main research fields in geodesy and geomatic.

1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Background Deformation ...

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