Now we have said that the good man is at the same time pleasant and useful; but such a man does not become the friend of one who surpasses him in station, unless he is surpassed also in virtue; if this is not so, he does not establish equality by being proportionally exceeded in both respects.
I live in the same house or on the same block with my friends-in-virtue. There are therefore three kinds of friendship, equal in number to the things that are lovable; for with respect to each there is a mutual and recognized love, and those who love each other wish well to each other in that respect in which they love one another.
Relationship of Ethics and Politics.
The association of brothers is like timocracy; for they are equal, except in so far as they differ in age; hence if they differ much in age, the friendship is no longer of the fraternal type. But these people do wish to spend their days and lives together; for it is thus that they attain the purpose of their friendship.
With the other animals the union extends only to this point, but human beings live together not only for the sake of reproduction but also for the various purposes of life; for from the start the functions are divided, and those of man and woman are different; so they help each other by throwing their peculiar gifts into the common stock.
Now this seems to be a correct form of government, but the Persian type is perverted; for the modes of rule appropriate to different relations are diverse.
Political institutions rely on friendly feelings between citizens, so friendship and justice are closely connected.
Now if the friendship is one that aims at utility, surely the advantage to the receiver is the measure. Book 6 We move into the intellectual virtues: But under this head, too, might bring lover and beloved, beautiful and ugly.
And this is most manifest in the case of the gods; for they surpass us most decisively in all good things. Aristotle also addresses the difficulty of giving people things—gifts, trust, respect—as they deserve, and of what happens when your friend changes for the worse.
Most people prefer being loved to loving, since they desire flattery and honor. But those who exchange not pleasure but utility in their amour are both less truly friends and less constant. The self is nous. To be friends, then, the must be mutually recognized as bearing goodwill and wishing well to each other for one of the aforesaid reasons.
I fail to see the force of it. Happiness depends on living in accordance with appropriate virtues. But creditors can remit a debt; and a father can therefore do so too. Perhaps they should look out for friends who, being pleasant, are also good, and good for them too; for so they will have all the characteristics that friends should have.
But to those who thus wish good we ascribe only goodwill, if the wish is not reciprocated; goodwill when it is reciprocal being friendship. But it is natural that such friendships should be infrequent; for such men are rare.
And in poverty and in other misfortunes men think friends are the only refuge. No matter how much he loves some person, he and that person can only be friends if the object of his love loves him too.
It is by their likeness to the friendship of virtue that they seem to be friendships for one of them involves pleasure and the other utility, and these characteristics belong to the friendship of virtue as well ; while it is because the friendship of virtue is proof against slander and permanent, while these quickly change besides differing from the former in many other respectsthat they appear not to be friendships; i.
Now the other communities aim at advantage bit by bit, e. The good man is someone who wants good for himself for his own sake wants himself to live for his own sake likes to spend time with himself makes the same choices [time and again] shares his pain and pleasure Annas thinks that Aristotle does not find his derivation of friendship from self-love to be intuitively plausible Annas, p.
He describes virtue in terms of a "mean" or "middle way" between two extremes excess and deficiency, both of which are vices and gives a quick run-down of traits according to this spectrum. So too they are pleasant; for the good are pleasant both without qualification and to each other, since to each his own activities and others like them are pleasurable, and the actions of the good are the same or like.
But at the outset we must consider the man by whom we are being benefited and on what terms he is acting, in order that we may accept the benefit on these terms, or else decline it. For friendship asks a man to do what he can, not what is proportional to the merits of the case; since that cannot always be done, e.
Book 8 This is all about friendship, which Aristotle first defines and then breaks down into three types: One of those conditions is expectation of shared material abundance mutual goodwill.
In these relationships, a different kind of love is called for from each party, and the amount of love should be proportional to the merit of each person. Although it can be difficult to figure out the right things to enjoy and the right amounts to enjoy them, pleasure is a necessary part of happy existence.
He opens with difficult questions:Video: Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics: Summary & Analysis. In this lesson, you'll develop an understanding of Aristotle, including his view of moral responsibility and ethics.
We'll use his. Nicomachean Ethics/5 good judge of that subject, and the man who has received an all-round education is a good judge in general. Hence a young man is not a proper hearer of lectures on political science; for he is inexperienced in the actions that occur in life, but its discussions start from these and are.
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics study guide contains a biography of Aristotle, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. This chapter is the first of two chapters on the nature and purpose of friendship.
An in. Free summary and analysis of the events in Aristotle's The Nicomachean Ethics that won't make you snore.
We promise. The Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. Home / Literature / The Nicomachean Ethics / This is all about friendship, which Aristotle first defines and then breaks down into three types: the useful, the pleasant, and the.
A summary of Book VIII in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Nicomachean Ethics and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
so friendships based on goodness tend to be long lasting.
This friendship encompasses the other. Dive deep into Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics with extended analysis, commentary, and discussion Nicomachean Ethics Analysis Aristotle.
The topic of friendship raises questions of the.Download